Sarcopenia y su relevancia en la práctica clínica

  • Jessica Lorenzo Becaria de Investigación Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires
  • Javier Rosa
  • María Lourdes Posadas Martínez
  • José R. Jauregui
Palabras clave: sarcopenia, masa muscular, dinapenia, fuerza muscular, adulto mayor

Resumen

La sarcopenia se define como una combinación de baja fuerza y masa muscular con alteración funcional del músculo, que afecta a poblaciones de diferentes edades por diversos motivos. La prevalencia global en adultos mayores se ha estimado en 10% (IC 95%: 8-12%) en hombres y 10% (IC 95%: 8-13%) en mujeres. Recientemente ha cobrado importancia su detección en enfermedades reumáticas, particularmente las inflamatorias. En esta revisión narrativa hemos considerado: a) recomendaciones para el diagnóstico de la sarcopenia; b) herramientas útiles para la práctica clínica y la investigación; c) su relación con las enfermedades reumáticas. Según el último Consenso Europeo de Sarcopenia la búsqueda debe comenzar cuando el paciente reporta síntomas y/o signos (debilidad, lentitud al caminar, desgaste muscular, pérdida de masa muscular, etc.). Para los adultos mayores se recomienda el cuestionario SARC-F como herramienta de tamizaje. Varias pruebas establecen los puntos de corte que deben utilizarse para diagnosticar la baja fuerza muscular, la disminución en la masa muscular y la alteración en el rendimiento físico. La relevancia de diagnosticar precozmente la sarcopenia se basa en el impacto clínico, económico y social que tiene, incluyendo la funcionalidad y calidad de vida de las personas, muy importante en aquellas con enfermedades reumatológicas.

Biografía del autor/a

Jessica Lorenzo, Becaria de Investigación Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires
Becaria de Investigación, Sección Reumatología, Servicio de Clínica Médica, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Javier Rosa
Jefe de la Sección Reumatología, Servicio de Clínica Médica, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina
María Lourdes Posadas Martínez
Área de Investigación no patrocinada, Departamento de Investigación, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Área de Investigación en Medicina Interna, Servicio de Clínica Médica, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB), Unidad Ejecutora del Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina
José R. Jauregui
Director Médico en We Care, residencia para adultos mayores, Profesor Titular de Geriatría, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires y Universidad Nacional de La Matanza, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Publicado
2022-09-01
Cómo citar
1.
Lorenzo J, Rosa J, Posadas Martínez ML, Jauregui JR. Sarcopenia y su relevancia en la práctica clínica. Rev. Argent. Reumatol. [Internet]. 1 de septiembre de 2022 [citado 6 de febrero de 2023];33(3):162 -172. Disponible en: https://ojs.reumatologia.org.ar/index.php/revistaSAR/article/view/674